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BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF JAMMU DISTRICT

                Jammu is located at 32.73N and 74.87E and has an average elevation of 327 mean sea level (1,073 ft). Jammu district lies at uneven ridges of low heights at the Shivalik hills and is surrounded by Shivalik range to the north, east and southeast while the Trikuta range surrounds it in the north-west.

            The name “Jammu” is derived from its ruler who founded it. Raja Jambulochan founded this city and named it Jambupora which later changed to Jammu. Many historians and locals believe that Jammu was founded by Raja Jambu Lochan in the 14th century BC. During one of his hunting campaigns, he reached the Tawi River where he saw a goat and a lion drinking water at the same place. Having satisfied their thirst, the animals went their own ways. The Raja was amazed, abandoned the idea of hunting and returned to his companions. Recounting what he had seen, he inferred that this place, where a lion and a lamb could drink water side by side, was a place of peace and tranquillity. The Raja commanded that a palace be built at this place and a city was founded around it. This city became known as Jambu-Nagar, which then later changed into Jammu.

 Climate

            Jammu, like the rest of north-western India, features a humid subtropical climate, with extreme summer highs reaching 46  °C (115  °F), and temperatures in the winter months occasionally falling below freezing. June is the hottest month with an average high of 40.6  °C (105.1  °F), while January is the coldest month with an average low reaching to 7  °C (45  °F). The average yearly precipitation is about 42 inches (1,100 mm) with the bulk of the rainfall in the months from June to September, although the winters can also be rather wet. In winter, dense smog causes inconvenience and temperature drops to 2  °C (36  °F). In summer, particularly in the month of May and June, extremely intense sunlight or hot winds can increase the temperature to 46  °C (115  °F).  

Climate data for Jammu

Month

Jan

Feb

Mar

Apr

May

Jun

Jul

Aug

Sep

Oct

Nov

Dec

Year

Average high  °C ( °F)

18.5
(65.3)

21.4
(70.5)

26.8
(80.2)

33.5
(92.3)

39.1
(102.4)

40.8
(105.4)

35.6
(96.1)

33.7
(92.7)

33.8
(92.8)

31.7
(89.1)

26.2
(79.2)

20.9
(69.6)

30.17
(86.3)

Daily mean  °C ( °F)

13.1
(55.6)

15.7
(60.3)

20.5
(68.9)

26.6
(79.9)

32.1
(89.8)

34.1
(93.4)

30.8
(87.4)

29.5
(85.1)

28.8
(83.8)

25.2
(77.4)

19.3
(66.7)

14.7
(58.5)

24.2
(75.57)

Average low  °C ( °F)

7.7
(45.9)

10.1
(50.2)

14.3
(57.7)

19.7
(67.5)

25.1
(77.2)

27.5
(81.5)

26.1
(79)

25.3
(77.5)

23.8
(74.8)

18.7
(65.7)

12.4
(54.3)

8.6
(47.5)

18.28
(64.9)

Precipitation mm (inches)

77
(3.03)

63
(2.48)

64
(2.52)

28
(1.1)

18
(0.71)

57
(2.24)

330
(12.99)

349
(13.74)

175
(6.89)

31
(1.22)

9
(0.35)

37
(1.46)

1,238
(48.73)

Source: Climate-Data.org

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Area and Population

            Jammu district is spread over an area of 3097 sq kms and has a population of about 13.57 lakhs as per 2001 census. It is largest populated district of the state and second largest in terms of population density which falls under the category 'B'. The literacy percentage of the district is 77% which is highest in the state according to 201 census.Administratively the district has been divided into 4 tehsils, 8 blocks including one municipality, 1192 villages and 297 panchayats. The district is having a National Airport situated at Satwari. This district serves as the winter capital of J&K state from November to April when all offices move from Srinagar to Jammu.

 

 BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF AGRO-CLIMATIC AND AGRICULTURAL CONDITION OF JAMMU DISTRICT

 

Major farming systems/enterprises (based on the analysis made by the KVK)

Sl. No

Farming system/enterprise

1

Irrigated (borewell)

Rice, berseem, and vegetables, 1-2 animals, Fish culture, Wheat

2

Irrigated (canal)

Rice, berseem, wheat, vegetables, Sarson, Gobisarson

3

Tank Irrigated

 

4

Rainfed

Maize, wheat, gram, mash moong, til, Sarson, Gobisarson

5

Enterprises

 

Description of Agro-climatic Zone & major agro ecological situations (based on soil and topography)

Sl. No

Agro-climatic Zone

Characteristics

1

Sub-tropical Zone

Situated between 300- 450m above sea level having severe winter, rare occurrence of frost and a hot spell of summer with concentration of precipitation in summer months.

 

Agro ecological situation

Characteristics

2

Rainfed 

The average rainfall of District Jammu ranges  from 750-900 mm. Agriculture  in this area is complex, diverse and risk-prone and is characterized by low levels of productivity and low input usage. Vagaries of the monsoon result in wide variation and instability in yields.

 

Soil types

S. No

Soil type

Characteristics

1.       

Sandy loam

pH 7.7-8.1, EC-0.15-0.23, organic carbon 0.35-0.44 (low), N- low, P-medium, K- medium

2.       

Loamy sand

pH 7.2-7.5, EC-0.15-0.20, organic carbon 0.45-0.55 (low), N- low, P-medium, K- high

3.       

Clay loam

pH 7.1-7.8, EC-0.18-0.22, organic carbon 0.40-0.50(low), N- low, P-medium, K- medium

4.       

Silnty clay loam

pH 7.4-7.6, EC-0.16-0.20, organic carbon 0.42-0.50 (low), N- low, P-medium, K- medium

 

Area, Production and Productivity of major crops cultivated in the district

S. No

Crop

Area (ha)

Production

(Metric tons)

Productivity

 (kg /ha)

1

Paddy

55550

162710

2930

2

Wheat

87620

143490

1638

3

Maize

19705

35863

1820

4

Pulses

8292

-

-

5

Millets

12428

-

-

6

Oil seed

3041

-

-

7

Fodders

5342

-

-

  weather data         

Month

Rainfall (mm)

 

Mean monthly Temperature 0 C

Mean monthly Relative Humidity (%)

Minimum

Maximum

Morning

Evening

April 14

42.5

30.3

14.7

77.0

40.0

May 14

15.9

34.6

20.2

61.0

32.0

June 14

10.0

39.7

23.4

56.0

32.0

July14

98.0

34.6

25.8

80.0

60.0

Aug14

258.7

34.0

24.4

87.0

64.0

Sep14

512.4

30.5

22.4

87.0

63.0

Oct 14

18.5

29.1

17.5

83.0

54.0

Nov 14

8.0

24.8

9.9

86.0

44.0

Dec 14

0.0

18.8

5.0

93.0

57.0

Jan 15

17.2

16.1

5.8

93.0

65.0

Feb 15

117.5

21.5

9.1

86.0

60.0

March 15

334.8

24.0

12.0

88.0

61.0

           

  

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